Glossary of Terms

Security Sector Assistance – For the purposes of SAM’s work, security sector assistance (SSA) refers to a vast array of programs and activities the United States employs to provide military or police training, equipment, advisement, and material and non-material support to foreign partners’ regular, and irregular security forces. Though there is no official definition of SSA, SAM has tried to capture the range of government efforts that could be considered SSA. For our purposes, arms sales are considered separate from SSA.

SSA – Security Assistance Monitor

Afghanistan Security Forces Fund -The Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF) is a Defense Department program that provides assistance to the security forces of Afghanistan.

ASFF – Afghan Security Forces Fund

Aviation Leadership Program – The Aviation Leadership Program is a Defense Department program that provides undergraduate education and training to personnel of friendly, less-developed foreign air forces.

Coalition Support Funds – Coalition Support Funds (CSF) refers to money from the Defense Emergency Response Fund (DERF) that is eligible to be used to reimburse coalition partners for logistical and military support to U.S. military operations.

CSF – Coalition Support Funds

DERF – Defense Emergency Respons Funds

Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program – Funded through the Defense Department, the Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) provides funding for “foreign military officers to attend U.S. military educational institutions and selected regional centers for non-lethal training.”

CTFP – Comtabting Terrorism Fellowship Program 

Cooperative Threat Reduction – The Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, housed within the Defense Department, was created to secure and dismantle weapons of mass destruction and associated infrastructure in the former Soviet states.

Counter-Islamic State in Iraq and Syria Train and Equip Fund – A Defense Department-funded program that is a consolidation of the Syria Train and Equip Fund and the Iraq Train and Equip Fund as a result of the FY2017 NDAA. Like the previous programs, the new program will seek to counter ISIS by supporting the Iraqi security forces and vetted Syrian rebels.

Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund – The Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund provides support and assistance to foreign security forces or other groups or individuals to conduct, support, or facilitate counterterrorism and crisis response activities pursuant to section 1534 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015. 

CTPF – Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund 

Defense Institute of International Legal Studies – The Defense Institute of International Legal Studies enables the Department of Defense to promote institutional legal capacity through resident courses and mobile activities.

Defense Institution Reform Initiative – The Defense Institution Reform Initiative enables the Department of Defense to engage with partner nations in their efforts to develop accountable, effective, and efficient defense governance institutions.

Department of Homeland Security – U.S. Coast Guard Activities – Through the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Coast Guard provides training and technical assistance to U.S. government agencies or foreign nationals on topics ranging from maritime law enforcement to port security.

Developing Country Combined Exercise Program – The Developing Country Combined Exercise Program authorizes the Department of Defense to reimburse developing countries for certain incremental expenses, excluding normal pay and benefits, incurred when participating in a bilateral or multilateral military exercise with U.S. forces.

Emergency Drawdowns – If an unforeseen emergency should arise overseas, the Emergency Drawdown authorities empower the U.S. President to transfer U.S. defense articles and services from existing U.S. government holdings, budgets or arsenals to the affected area within certain limitations.

European Deterrence Initiative – The European Deterrence Initiative, a Department of Defense-funded program, increases U.S. capabilities to deter and defend against Russian aggression, further galvanize U.S. support to the collective defense of NATO Allies, and bolster the security and capacity of our U.S. partners.

Excess Defense Articles – The Excess Defense Articles authority allows the U.S. government to transfer used U.S. defense equipment from U.S. military stockpiles to foreign security forces. Separated by the Security Assistance Monitor, equipment provided under this heading only includes Excess Defense Articles that the United States gave to foreign countries.

EDA – Excess Defense Articles 

Exchange Training – Joint Combined Exchange Trainings (JCET) are military exercises that provide training for American Special Operations Forces (SOF) in friendly foreign countries alongside the armed forces of the host nation.

Foreign Military Financing – The Foreign Military Financing program provides grants and loans to help countries purchase U.S.-made defense articles and defense services on the U.S. Munitions List.

FMF – Foreign Military Financing 

Global Lift and Sustain – The Global Lift and Sustain authority permits the Defense Department to provide logistics support, supplies, and services to allied forces participating in combined operations with U.S. Armed Forces.

International Military Education and Training – International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds provide training and education on a grant basis to students from allied and friendly nations.

IMET – International Military Education and Training 

International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement – Separated by the Security Assistance Monitor, the security assistance part of the International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) program provides equipment and training to foreign countries for counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts.

INCLE – International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

Iraq Train and Equip Fund – These funds are available to provide assistance, including training; equipment; logistics support, supplies, and services; stipends; infrastructure repair, renovation, and sustainment to military and other security forces of or associated with the Government of Iraq, including Kurdish and tribal security forces or other local security forces, with a national security mission, to counter the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant.

Israel Cooperative Programs – The Israel Cooperative Programs is a set of Defense Department-funded U.S. military aid programs for missile defense that Congress has consistently appropriated for years.

Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command – Headed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Unified Command Plan’s non-security assistance focuses on humanitarian and civic aid.

Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs – The Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs (NADR) account supports funding in nonproliferation, anti-terrorism, regional stability and humanitarian assistance to help reduce transnational threats to American security and mitigate local threats.

NADR – Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs

Peacekeeping Operations – The Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) account provides funds for several initiatives in support of peackeeping and regional stability not funded through the United Nations.

PKO – Peacekeeping Operations 

Regional Centers for Security Studies – The Regional Centers for Security Studies are Defense Department-administered venues for research, communication, and exchange of ideas involving military and civilian participants from the United States and foreign countries.

Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance – Authorized in the FY 1991 National Defense Authorization Act, Section 1004 permits the Defense Department to give U.S. and foreign security forces additional support for counter-narcotic activities.

Section 1203 Training – Training of general-purpose forces of the United States Armed Forces with military and other security forces of friendly foreign countries.

Section 1206 Train and Equip Authority – Section 1206 authority grants the Secretary of Defense the authority to train and equip foreign military forces and foreign maritime security forces to perform counterterrorism operations and to participate in or to support military and stability operations in which U.S. Armed Forces are participating.

Section 1208 Authority – Section 1208 Authority provides support to foreign forces, irregular forces, groups, or individuals engaged in supporting or facilitating ongoing military operations by United States special operations forces to combat terrorism.

Section 127(e) Authority – Formerly Section 1208, the authority was made permanent in the 2017 NDAA as 127(e) of the U.S. Code, providing USSOCOM the authority to provide support to foreign forces, irregular forces, groups, or individuals engaged in supporting or facilitating ongoing military operations by United States special operations forces to combat terrorism.

Section 333 Building Partner Capacity – Section 333 Building Partner Capacity is a new program created under the provisions of the FY 2017 NDAA that sought to expand the Global Train and Equip (Section 1206 Train and Equip Authority) scope for the purpose of building the capacity of foreign national security forces to conduct one or more of the following: Counterterrorism operations; Counter-weapons of mass destruction operations; Counter-illicit drug trafficking operations; Counter-transnational organized crime operations; Maritime and border security operations; Military intelligence operations; Operations or activities that contribute to an international coalition operation.

Service Academies – The United States Service Academies are federal academies for undergraduate education and training of commissioned officers for members of the United States Armed Forces, but each academy also allows foreign military personnel to attend under certain circumstances.

State Partnership Program – The National Guard State Partnership Program (SPP) partners U.S. states with foreign nations to promote and enhance bilateral relationships. The program primarily involves Military-to-Military (M2M) engagements, promoting defense and security cooperation to include non-commissioned officer (NCO) professional development, soldier readiness, equipment familiarization and maintenance.

SPP – State Partnership Program 

Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative – The Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative is a Defense Department-funded security assistance program created by Congress in the Fiscal Year 2016 National Defense Authorization Act in order to provide defensive equipment and training.

Wales Initiative – A Defense Department assistance program that provides financial support for non-NATO members to participate in the Partnership for Peace defense cooperation program.

Arms Sales – U.S. military equipment, defense services, and arms sold to a foreign country. This includes commercial sales, government-to-government sales, as well as sales managed and overseen by the commerce department.

Foreign Military Training – U.S. military or police training provided by the United States to foreign military forces, security forces, and police forces, whether regular or irregular. 

FMTR – Foreing Military Training

Commerce Arms Sales (600 Series) – The Commerce Arms Sales (600 Series) are arms sales to foreign countries regulated by the Commerce Department. These sales were formerly regulated by the U.S. State Department and the U.S. Munitions List (USML) but have been moved over to the Commerce Control List (CCL).

Direct Commercial Sales – The Direct Commercial Sales program regulates U.S. companies’ sales of U.S. defense articles and defense services on the U.S. Munitions List abroad.

Direct Commercial Sales Services – Direct Commercial Sales Services are a portion of the Direct Commercial Sales program that manages the arms sales of defense services provided to other countries.

Foreign Military Sales – The Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program manages government-to-government purchases of U.S. defense articles and defense services on the U.S. Munitions List.

FMS – Foreign Military Sales 

DCS – Direct Commercial Sales 

Arms Export Control Act – The Arms Export Control Act (AECA) is one of the principal statutes governing arms sales and security sector assistance and provides the President with the statutory authority to control the export of defense articles and services. The AECA also contains the statutory authority for the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, under which the U.S. government sells U.S. defense equipment, services, and training on a government-to-government basis. The law also specifies criteria for Direct Commercial Sales (DCS), whereby eligible foreign governments and international organizations purchase some defense articles and services directly from U.S. firms. The AECA also sets out foreign and national policy objectives for international defense cooperation and military export controls.

AECA – Arms Export Control Act 

BPC – Building Partner Capacity 

DSCA – Defense Security Cooperation Agency

Defense Security Cooperation Agency – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), an agency of the Department of Defense, leads the broader U.S. security cooperation enterprise in its efforts to train, educate, advise, and equip foreign partners. DSCA administers security cooperation programs and objectives identified by the White House, Department of Defense, and Department of State. These objectives include developing specific partner capabilities, building alliances and partnerships, and facilitating U.S. access.